After a comprehensive arrangement of some incoherent governmental organizations worked in the fields of Labor and Social Welfare Affairs a General Directorate named (Labor and Social protection) established at the council of Ministers in 1980 as a first step toward the creation of labor and Social Affairs Ministry.

This General Directorate has converted to State Committee for Labour and Social Affairs as an independent organization in 1984, and then in 1988 this GD raised to central Labour and Social protection organization equal to ministry and started its activities in the related fields with the cooperation of governmental, nongovernmental, and foreign institutions.

By the 816th official decree of president and approval of National Assembly, Directorates of Kindergartens, orphanages centers and women’s Association (Mermano Tolana), which worked for social welfare, amalgamated to this central Labour and Social protection organization and a new organization has been formed named the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs on May 26, 1990.  

The Taliban Regime has reconverted the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs back to General Directorate in 1997.

After the formation of the interim government in 2001, GD has promoted back to the Ministry level.

By the issuing of 1903rd the presidential decree, the Ministry of Martyrs and Disabled has integrated into the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs on August 14, 2006. Thus, the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs, Martyrs and Disabled established with 4 deputy Ministries and 34 provincial official Branches, and as the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan's the key organization working in the fields of Labour, Social Affairs, welfare, and service delivery to the heirs of Martyrs and Disabled Afghan People.

By the issuing of the 75th presidential, decree that created the State Minister for the heirs of Martyrs and Disabled people, Deputy Ministry of Martyrs and Disabled compartmentalized from the body of Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs, Martyrs and Disabled and this Ministry back renamed by the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs in 2018, the organization is now active  in the fields of Labour, Social protection and  service delivery to Children and other vulnerable crust of society with three Deputy Ministries, central directorates, second Unites, and provincial directorate Branches in 33 provinces

In Afghanistan’s Agreement, The role of MOLSA is vital especially for the achieving of the Agreement’s Aims, The agreement expresses a wide strategic vision for the development of Afghanistan, with the main points of Security, good governance, the role of law, Human Rights and economic and social development.

For better performances and achieving the main goals as its mandate, the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs has launched several important programs such as Labour welfare and Skill improvement program, Social welfare program, and Administrative and financial capacity Building program.

Main Goals: Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs is determined to create an effective social protection network for the deprived and isolated crust of society, facilitation of Skill improvement, jobs opportunities and welfare of the workforce, standardization of Ministry and its directorates as modern institutions, Sufficient and effective organization to be able to manage all the Labour and Social Affaires related fields bitterly for Achieving the Main Goal Of Islamic Republic Of Afghanistan: Social and economic development.